- If a sample is a factor analysis, for protein only, and the sample is appealed or Board appealed, can the class on the grain line be changed if the original used the wrong class?
ANSWER. Yes. You would change the class on the grade line.
- If a sample is for grade and protein and the sample is appealed or Board appealed for protein only, can the class on the grade line be changed if the original inspector misclassed it?
ANSWER. Yes. You would change the class on the grade line.
- What functions as Insect Damaged Kernels (IDK) in wheat?
ANSWER. Whole and broken kernels of wheat and whole and broken kernels of other grains which standards have been established. Whole and broken kernels of wheat and other grains each function as one IDK. NOTE: If the bran over the germ has a hole in it remove the bran to determine if the kernel is insect damaged.
- Is smut affected wheat considered damaged when it is in the crease or on the meat of the kernel?
ANSWER. Since smut (a fungus) and mold are virtually indistinguishable smut affected kernels are considered mold damage if they meet the minimum requirement as shown on the left kernel of VRI W-4.1 Mold Damage. If the smut penetrates the seedcoat and adheres to the “meat” of the kernel it is considered damage. Otherwise, it is considered sound.
- Should kernels of White Wheat with a red tinge function as either Contrasting Classes (CCL) or Wheat of Other Classes (WOCL) in a predominantly red wheat sample? (Rev)
ANSWER. Provided the “red tinge” is plainly evident, the kernel would not function as CCL. Whether the kernel functions as WOCL is dependent on its physical characteristics and how compatible those characteristics are to the predominating class. With that said, since “red tinge” is not universally understood (at least visually), to ensure a more consistent application of CCL/WOCL involving blends of red and white wheat, it is highly recommended that such samples be bleached before making any assessment.
- How do you class the Hard Red wheat varieties grown in the Southwestern states and offered for inspection outside the designated policy area?
ANSWER. The Hard Red wheat varieties shall be classed on kernel characteristics. The only exceptions are the varieties Anza and Yolo. These two are always classed as HRW.
- If you have to do more than one special dockage procedure, what order would you do them?
ANSWER. Do the special dockage procedures in the order they are listed in the Grain Inspection Handbook.
- Can an inspector use an aid to assist in determining whether a garlic bulblet is green or dry?
ANSWER. Yes. But an aid should only be used on questionable garlic bulblets.
- Can you use the Number 25 Riddle when determining dockage for other classes of wheat besides Durum wheat?
ANSWER. Yes. But you would only use the Number 25 Riddle if you were getting a large amount of wheat over the Number 2 Riddle.
- Can wheat affected by the gibberella zea fungus be considered damage?
ANSWER. Yes. Currently there is not an interpretive line slide, but it is considered damaged if the gibberella is an intense pink and covers 50 percent or more of the kernel.
- Is CCL or WOCL shown when you have Mixed wheat?
ANSWER. No. Contrasting Classes and WOCL are not shown, but the name and percentage of the classes that comprise the mixture are listed in the order of predominance to the nearest whole percent on the work record and in the “remarks” section of the certificate.
- Do stones function as foreign material?
ANSWER. Yes, when they remain in the sample after the removal of dockage.
- When requested, what is the basis of determination for determining black seed count?
ANSWER. Black seed count is not an official determination. As such, standardized procedures have not been established. Criteria used for the determination, including the basis of determination are negotiable. Nabisco, for example, currently requires black seed count to be determined on approximately 1000 grams after the removal of dockage and SHBN. All seeds with black seed coats are removed from the sample, counted, and recorded. Other customers may have different requirements.
- Does Dark, Hard, and Vitreous (DHV) have to be analyzed on an export lot of U.S. No. 2 or better Northern Spring wheat if the inspector can visually determine the subclass, and the DHV percentage has not been requested by the applicant?
ANSWER. Yes. On February 18, 1997, FGIS reevaluated its policy regarding the analysis of DHV and HVAC and decided that it is necessary to analyze and report DHV/HVAC results for all export cargoes of HRS and Durum wheat, regardless of whether it is requested or not.
- Can wheat which is submitted from a foreign country be graded under the USGSA?
ANSWER. Yes. Grade and class the wheat according to U.S. standards.
- If a sample is a factor analysis for damage only and the sample is appealed or Board appealed, can the class on the grade line be changed if misclassed during the original inspection?
- Can heat damage ever exceed the DKT percentage?
ANSWER. Since heat and DKT are determined on different potion sizes, it is possible to have HT exceed DKT. When this occurs, the DKT should be adjusted to equal HT.
- If a sample of wheat contains more than 50 percent dockage, can the sample be graded as wheat?
ANSWER. No. The sample does not meet the definition of wheat and is therefore considered a Not Standardized Grain.
- What does malted wheat function as when found in a wheat sample?
- If a Durum wheat sample is submitted for an HVAC analysis only and it is determined that the sample is actually Mixed wheat, do you have to show the percentage of HVAC?
ANSWER. Although subclass is not applicable to Mixed wheat it is permissible and advisable to honor the applicant’s request.
- When analyzing a sample of Western White wheat, are the WOCL and foreign material included with the White Club or other White Wheat?
ANSWER. Wheat of other classes and foreign material are included with the predominant mixture of the Western White subclass.
- If a sample contains 88% WHCB, 9% OWH (soft), and 3% HRW, should the sample be classed as SWH or XWHT?
ANSWER. The sample would class SWH and the subclass would be WHCB and certified with 3% CCL/WOCL.
- Inspectors are finding what they believe to be black mold in the crease of Soft Red Winter wheat kernels. Does it function as damage, and if so, what visual reference should be used to guide their decisions?
ANSWER. Mold, regardless of its color, functions as damage if it penetrates the seed coat or if there is an appreciable amount in the crease. Inspectors should refer to VRI W-4.1 (11/97) when making this assessment. The kernel on the left illustrates the minimum requirement for mold in the crease. Inspectors should be careful not to confuse black mold with discoloration associated with black-tip fungus, smut, or pigmentation stains that may also appear in the crease.
- Do weed stained wheat kernels function as unknown foreign substance?
ANSWER. No. They are also considered sound unless they meet the mold Interpretation. If a sufficient amount of stained kernels are present in the sample, consider it to be DLQ. Of course, if a strong weed odor is present it is considered COFO as well.
- Applicants occasionally request that the percentage of IDK included in the assessment of damaged kernels (total) be reported in the remarks section of the certificate, in addition to an IDK count. In rare instances, that percentage may exceed the number of insect damage kernels found in 100 grams. In these instances, should an adjustment be made to make the findings more consistent?
ANSWER. No. Report the number of IDK and the percentage of IDK on the actual basis of determination. For example, “4 IDK per 100 grams;” “0.0% IDK per 15 grams.” To minimize the chance that this situation will occur, perform the percentage IDK on the basis of the 15 gram DKT portion, and cut out an additional 85-gram portion for the balance of the 100 gram portion used for IDK count per 100 grams.
- Does chess ergot function as ergot when grading wheat?
ANSWER. Yes. All cereal grains and grasses affected by ergot function as ergot.
- What does triticale function as when it comes over the riddle during processing?
- Is wheat affected by the Orange Wheat Blossom Midge considered damage?
ANSWER. Midge affected wheat is considered damage when it contains any amount of mold on the endosperm or is otherwise damaged. Midge is most prevalent in Minnesota, North Dakota and Canada, and occurs when the midge larva feeds on the developing wheat kernel. In past years, it has been most prevalent in Durum wheat. The Midge larva causes the wheat kernel to shrivel, crack and become deformed. Kernels of wheat that have been chewed by the Midge larva, but do not contain mold or are not otherwise damaged, are considered sound.
- If a sample of wheat marketed as Western White Wheat contains sufficient other, nonsoft white wheat classes to meet the requirements of Mixed wheat, how should the percentage of white club be reported?
ANSWER. The percentage of white club and common soft white are to be combined and certified as Soft White wheat. Upon request, the actual White club percentage may be reported in the remarks section of the certificate.
- When a Western White wheat sample contains “Wheat of Other Classes” (less than 10 percent), can the percentage of each class present be shown in the “Remarks” of the certificate?
ANSWER. Yes, upon request. If a breakdown is not requested, only report the percentage of White Club in the “Remarks” section of the certificate to the nearest whole percent. When requested, show the percentage of Soft White wheat, White Club wheat, and any wheat classes that make up WOCL to the nearest whole percent (i.e., 80% SWH, 15% WHCB, 5% HDWH) in the “Remarks” section of the certificate.
- Should samples of red wheat originating from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas be classed as Hard Red Winter wheat (regardless of kernel characteristics) when submitted to an inspection service provider operating in another, non-specified state?
ANSWER. Yes, but only if the applicant states that the wheat was grown and is being marketed in one of these recognized states. This information should be included on the work record and may, upon request of the applicant for service, be reported in the remarks section of the certificate (i.e., “Applicant states this wheat is grown and marketed in _________.”
- After May 1, 2006 is the Hard White wheat (HDWH) color line still applicable?
ANSWER. Yes, but only upon request by the applicant. When requested, inspectors should visually examine the market sample, comparing its overall color to that depicted on the line print, and will certify in the remarks section of the certificate whether the color meets (as light or lighter) or exceeds (darker) the declared standard.
- Is it permissible to analyze Dark, Hard, and Vitreous (DHV) in Hard Red Winter wheat in the official system?
- What special dockage procedure would be used when you have excessive weed seeds that are similar in size and shape to canola? The “Wild buckwheat or similar seeds” procedure requires more than 0.5%; but if canola, rapeseed or flaxseed is present, the requirement is 0.3% or more before the special dockage procedure is required.
ANSWER: Use the Wild buckwheat or similar seeds special dockage when this occurs.
- If an applicant requests a review inspection for Contrasting Classes (CCL) only what result is shown for Wheat of Other Classes (WOCL)?
ANSWER. Since CCL is included in WOCL a new analysis for CCL and WOCL would have to be performed. The new analysis for CCL and WOCL would supersede the previous result.
- If an applicant requests a review inspection for only one of the factors (DKT, SHBN, or FM) that comprise Defects (total) does Defects (total) have to be recalculated?
ANSWER. Yes. The new reviewed factor result would be added to the original results for the remaining two factors that comprise Defects (total).
- An applicant was having a blanket appeal called on out wheat barges. The applicant wanted to know if they did not request IDK on the original inspection could they still request IDK on the review inspection. They stated since the appeal was going to supersede the original they wanted to save money by not requesting IDK on the original inspection.
ANSWER. No. Requesting IDK on the review inspection when the original inspection did not request an IDK determination is considered a change in scope. Since it is a change in scope the request was denied.
- The determination of stones and ergot is determined after the removal of dockage. Does this mean that the weight of the dockage has to be subtracted from the original weight of the sample to calculate the percent of stones and ergot?
ANSWER. Yes. Since stones are determined on the weight of the sample after the removal of dockage the dockage weight has to be subtracted from the original weight to calculate the percent of stones and ergot.
Original weight = 1033 grams
Dockage = 32.48 grams
Dockage free sample weight = 1033 – 32 (32.48 rounded)
= 1001 grams
- Can a hand crank barley pearler be used as an aide for determining germ damage in wheat?
ANSWER. Yes. The aide can be used if the following criteria are adhered to: all other types of damage are removed first and the pearler does not destroy the germ or causes the germ to pop out of the socket to properly assess whether the germ is sound or damage.