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Meat Terminology  

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B
Ball Tip In beef, the portion of the knuckle left on the sirloin when the round is separated from the loin.
Basis Point Refers to the marketing area for which trades are reported. Examples include f.o.b. Omaha, CAF East Coast, etc.
Bile A brown to greenish yellow fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Bile aids in the emulsification and absorption of fats in the digestive process. Bile is used by the pharmaceutical industry for steroid production and for digestive aids.
Blade Meat The meat removed from the scapula or shoulder bone. Also called lifter meat or cap and wedge meat.
Blood Meal Pulverized or finely ground dried blood. Water is usually removed by either flash drying or by the conventional cooker method. Blood meal is high in protein (85 percent) and is used as a feed additive. Valued as a good source of natural lysine.
Bluesheet (See National Wholesale Meat Trade Report.)
Bob Veal A house graded baby dairy calf slaughtered at 1
Bond Storage The storage of imported product which exceeds the yearly quota. This product is held for the remainder of the year and is eligible to be released for use in commerce on January 2 of the following year.
Boneless Processing Meat Refers usually to product produced specifically for further grinding. (See also Trimmings)
Bone Meal Finely ground or pulverized cooked bone. Not used in any meat food product but in animal feeds.
Boning Utility
Boxed Carcass Unit Refers to a beef carcass which is broken into subprimals, boxed and sold as a complete unit, usually comprised of seven boxes.
Branded In hides, refers to the custom of mechanically imprinting the skin of live for identification purposes. The brand is treated as a defect in the leather animals industry.
Breaking Utility A low grade of cattle, usually cows, normally with a yield grade range of 2
Brisket The breast area of a carcass located in the forward lower portion of the chest.
Butt Branded In hides, refers to a hide which has had a brand placed on the portion of the skin covering the rump area of the animal.
C

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C.A.F Cost after freight. Trades made on a delivered basis and reported with freight overages included.
Calf A young bovine of either sex that has not reached puberty. Usually up to 9 months of age.
Canner The lowest USDA quality grade of beef. These animals, usually cows, are too thin to yield many merchandisable cuts of meat and are usually used for boneless processing meat.
Cap and Wedge Meat See Blade Meat.
Cap In veal, the gracilis muscle.
Carlot Normally used to refer to a truckload quantity which is generally accepted as being 40,000 pounds.
Certified Fresh American Lamb Lamb certified by the USDA Meat Grading Service as meeting the specifications of Schedule CL.
Certified U.S. Lamb Lamb certified by the USDA Meat Grading Service as meeting the specifications of Schedule L1.
Chemical Lean Refers to the fat analysis of a product, usually trimmings, as determined through a chemical test. Expressed as a percentage of lean.
Chilled Meat product handled and stored between 30
Chitterlings The cleaned large intestines of swine prepared for human food.
Choice White Grease Rendered, inedible pork fat. Used in pet foods and animal feeds.
Chub A tubular casing or plastic bag in which meat, usually ground beef or pork, is enclosed for retail sale.
Chuck Tender The supraspinatus muscle. Also called scotch tender.
C.I.F Cost, insurance, freight. Commonly used on the import beef market to describe trades of product which arrive at U.S. ports with only the cost of freight and insurance included in the reported price. Does not include import duties, inspection charges, or unloading charges.
Clod Refers to the large outside muscle system lying posterior to the elbow joint and ventral to the medial ridge of the blade bone.
Coarse Ground Beef Ground beef prepared from boneless beef or beef trimmings from domestic fed cattle. The product, of a rather large particle size, is used for further processing. (See also Coarse Ground Blended Beef.)
Coarse Ground Blended Beef Ground beef prepared, in any combination, from boneless beef or beef trimmings from fed cattle, dairybreds, or cows and bulls. The product, of a rather large particle size, is used for further processing. (See also Coarse Ground Beef.)
Collared Refers to the beveling of the fat cover usually over the face of a ham. As opposed to non
Collie Trade slang for Colorado Branded Steer hides.
Colorado Branded In hides, refers to placement of a brand on the side of an animal, although not necessarily from Colorado. (See also Collie.)
Combo A large, open, tub
Comminuted The reduction of meat particle size through grinding, dicing, chopping, etc.
Conventional Hides Unfleshed hides from which the horns, lips, snout, ears, tail bone, sinews and tendons have been removed. Known as "Standard Hide Trim". These hides are cured either by salt packing or, more commonly, brine curing.
Cracklings The crisp residue remaining after lard has been pressed from rendered hog fat or tallow pressed from rendered beef fat. (see also Dry Rendered Tankage).
Cross Cut Shoulder
Cryovac The patented name of a commercial process by which cuts of meat are placed into plastic bags which are then vacuum sealed and shrunk tightly to the contour of the product. This process is used to extend shelf life. Also called vacuum pack.
Cutout A calculation representing the approximate value of a total unit (usually a carcass) based upon the prices received for its respective parts. The prices for these parts are multiplied by their respective yield to the whole and the products are summed into the final cutout.
Cutter The next to lowest USDA quality grade for beef. These animals, usually cows, are normally too thin to yield but a few merchandisable cuts of meat but are suitable for the production of boneless beef.
D

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Day Prior Ship A method of pricing product based on a price quoted on the last business day before the date the product ships.
Deckle The fat and lean lying between the bone and main muscle of the brisket.
Delivered Price Price of a trade including freight overages. (See also C.A.F.)
Delivery Date Time at which buyer of traded product physically takes possession. (See also Ship Date.)
Denude To remove surface fat from a cut of meat down to the blue tissue or silver skin.
Denver Style Rib Refers to the rib portion of the lamb breast.
Distributive Refers to trades made in amounts usually much less than carlot; such trades as walk
Double Split The producer will be paid a value based on the negotiated market. The split may possibly be below or above the contracted numbers.
Dressing Percentage Refers to the yield of dressed carcass from a live animal.
Drop 1) Refers to primal cuts as they are removed from the carcass before any further trimming, etc, has been done to them (i.e., drop loin, etc.). Sometimes also called commodity product. 2) Refers to the offal which "drops" out of a carcass in the slaughter operation. Commonly associated with most variety meats. (See also Offal.)
Dry Rendered A material that has been rendered by application of heat in a steam jacketed cooker that does not allow steam or hot water to come in contact with the material being rendered.
Dry Rendered Tankage (DRT) Cooked residue remaining after lard or tallow has been released in the dry rendering process. Also called "cracklings". Usually ground and added to feed with a beef protein level of approximately 44 percent and a pork protein level of approximately 55 percent. (See also Cracklings.)
E
End Meats In beef, cuts from the chuck and round. (See also Middle Meats.)
Entitlement As part of a voluntary restraint agreement, export privileges granted only to certain packing plants within a country supplying meat to the United States.
Equated to F.O.B. Omaha Describes those trades which are not traded on a "true" f.o.b. Omaha basis but are reflective of an f.o.b. Omaha based market and are reported as such.
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) Rod-shaped bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Some strains are pathogenic. Presence of E. Coli is evidence of fecal matter contamination. 
Eye Muscle Commonly refers to the longissimus dorsi muscle. Also called the ribeye.
Eye of the Round In beef, the semitendinosus muscle.
Ex-Dock Price The price of an imported product after import duties, inspection charges, and unloading charges are paid and added to the C.I.F. (Cost, insurance, freight) price of the product. 
F
Fabricated Cuts Meat cuts made from primal and sub
False Sweetbread In swine, the pancreas gland. (See also Sweetbread, Pancreas.)
Firm Bottom/Firm Top The producer is guaranteed to be paid no less than the firm bottom and no more than the firm top, possibly somewhere in between.
Firm Bottom/Open Top The producer is guaranteed to be paid no less than the firm bottom and possibly more in relationship to the current negotiated market.
Firm Bottom/Split Top The producer is guaranteed to be paid no less than the firm bottom and possibly split between the split top and the current negotiated market.
Fixed The producer will be paid the guarantee fixed price with no variation.
Flap The abdominus internus muscle. That portion of the knuckle muscles on the inner surface of the bottom sirloin.
Flat In beef, the biceps femoris muscle. Also called the outside round.
Fleshed Hide Hides that have been run through a fleshing machine to remove all fat and meat. These hides are trimmed to the "Modern Trim Pattern" before fleshing. On average, fleshed hides weigh 22 percent less than conventional hides.
f.o.b Freight on Board or Free on Board. Trades made in which the cost of freight is backed off to arrive at the base price of the product. Usually associated with a basis point from which freight is calculated, such as Omaha.
f.o.b. Omaha Reflects all trades as though produced and shipped from Omaha with appropriate freight costs from buyer to Omaha taken off of delivered price.
f.o.b. Plant Trades made in which the buyer picks up the product from the seller's production point. Freight costs are not reflected in the price.
Forequarter The front half of a carcass or side (usually beef) made up of the forelimb, one half of the chest, including ribs, and the neck. (See also Hindquarter.)
Foresaddle The unsplit front half of a veal or lamb carcass.
Foreshank The shank portion of a front leg, including the end of the humerus along with the radius and ulna bones with their associated muscles and connective tissues.
Formula Trading Trading in which the price of a product is set through an agreed upon formula using the reported price of an item as a starting point. These trades are not utilized in the preparation of market reports. (See also Negotiated Trading.)
Formula Fed Veal (See Special Fed.)
Free Time The period of time, after product arrives at a U.S. port freezer and is inspected, when a buyer can pick up product without incurring additional storage charges. Ranges from 72 hours to 2-3 weeks, depending on the particular port freezer.
Frozen Meat reduced in temperature to below 28 degrees F (the freezing temperature of meat).
G
Gooseneck The bottom round of beef. Composed primarily of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius muscles.
Grade USDA. designation indicating quality or yield of meat.
Green Usually used to describe fresh pork cuts that are destined to be smoked. Not cured or ready for use.
H
Hanging Tender The thick, red muscle dorsal attachments of the diaphragm.
Heel A group of small muscles located in the lower portion of the outside round.
Heifer A female bovine that has not yet produced a calf.
Heiferette A young cow that has had at least one calf but which has the body characteristics normally associated with a heifer; i.e. small udder. Usually bought at a discount to heifers and at a premium to cows.
Hide Refers to the whole skin or pelt from one of the larger animals (cattle, etc.). Pelts from smaller or younger animals are usually referred to as "skins."
Hide On Veal carcasses sold with the hide intact. Usually used when calf is slaughtered and broken at different facilities to reduce the incidence of drying. Normally dresses 70 percent. 
Hide Off Veal carcasses sold with the hide removed. Usually done in facilities where slaughtering and breaking both take place. Normally dresses 62.5 percent. 
Hindquarter The rear half of a beef carcass side composed of the loin, flank, and round. Usually separated form the forequarter by a cut between the 12th and 13th ribs (the last two ribs). (See also Forequarter.)
Hindsaddle The unsplit rear half of a lamb or veal carcass. Corresponds to the hindquarter in beef.
Honeycomb Tripe The lining of the second compartment (reticulum) of the ruminant stomach which has honeycomb
Hormone A chemical substance produced in the body that has a specific effect on the activity or function of a certain organ. Utilized by the pharmaceutical industry.
Hot Basis Sold on a hot carcass weight before shrink normally associated with chilling.
H.R.I. Designates product prepared for use in Hotels, Restaurants, and Institutions.
Hydrogenation A chemical process used to harden soft or semi
I
Import Quota The amount of beef product which can be imported into the United States in a given year. This amount is set by the USDA on the basis of past U.S. production levels and on projections for the coming year. (See also Meat Import Act, Trigger Level.)
IMPS (Institutional Meat Purchasing Specifications) Written guidelines that describe in detail how various cuts of meat should be produced. Used widely in the industry, especially by retailers and HRI outfits, to ensure consistency of product purchased. Prepared by AMS's Standardization Branch.
Inside Skirt The Transversus abdominis muscle.
Intent of Sale Refers to the base price of a commodity as agreed upon by both buyer and seller.
K
Kidney Knob The rounded structure of the kidney and the surrounding fat.
Kipskin A hide of the bovine species from a very young, or even unborn, animal up to a mature animal. Also called Kips.
Kosher Meat fit to be eaten or used according to Hebraic or Talmudic dietary or ceremonial law.
L
Lard The fat rendered from fresh, clean, sound fatty tissues of USDA inspected and passed hog carcasses.
Lateral Of or pertaining to the side.
Latest Established Market That part of a report that reflects the price that a buyer would normally expect to pay for and a seller could normally expect to sell for a given commodity at the close of a day's trading.
Leaf Fat The heavy layer of fat that lines the inside surfaces of the abdominal cavity of a hog carcass.
Less-than-Carlot (LCL) Volume made up of less than the 40,000 pounds normally associated with a full truck load.
Lights Slang term for lungs.
Live Entry Entry of live animals into the U.S. When a voluntary restraint agreement is in effect, the U.S. Customs Service, under the direction of the USDA, applies special procedures to monitor imports in an effort to ensure that the trigger level is not exceeded. (See also Trigger Level, Voluntary Restraint Agreement.)
Loose Lard Lard that is bulk packaged (railcars or trucks).
M
Meat and Bone Meal The dry, rendered product derived from animal tissue that is ground into meal for a feed additive. The standard protein level is 50 percent.
Meat Import Act (MIA) Enacted in 1964 by Congress, this law provides for the imposition of quantitative import controls on fresh, chilled, and frozen beef; veal; mutton; and goat meat.
Mechanically Deboned Product, usually pork picnics, that is machine separated from bones. The resultant product is normally intended for further processing into fresh ground product or sausage.
Melts Industry terminology for spleens. (See also Spleen.)
Middle Meats In beef, cuts from the rib and loin. (See also End Meats.)
Mutton Meat derived from the carcasses of mature sheep.
Milk Fed Veal (See Special Fed.)
MPR Mandatory Price Reporting
3/70/20 Guideline used in Mandatory Price Reporting - 

 - For each type of report (national or regional), at least 3 companies would have to submit data 50 percent of the time or more over a 60 day period.

 - No one company can account for 70 percent or more of cumulative market volume for any individual report over a 60 day period.

 - In cases where only one company submits data for individual reports, the same company can not be the sole reporting entity more than 20 percent of the time during a 60 day period.
N
National Wholesale Meat Trade Report A daily publication composed of all meat reports compiled and released by the Livestock and Grain Market News Service, Des Moines, IA. Also called the "Bluesheet." (See also Weekly National Wholesale Meat Trade Report.)
Native In hides, refers to a hide that has not been branded.
Nature Veal (See Special Fed.)
Neckbones The cervical vertebrae
Negotiated Trading Trades made in which the selling price is arbitrated between the buyer and seller and not through an as yet to be reported price for a particular commodity. (See also Formula Trading.)
No Roll Beef that has not been officially Quality graded and roller branded by the USDA.
North Central Area usually associated with the following states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
Northeast Area usually associated with the following states: Massachusetts, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, and Vermont.
O
Offal In red meat species, the organs or parts from the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the tongue. (See also By-Products.)
Off Condition Meat that is unwholesome.
One Hundred Percent Lean (100%) Cuts of meat, usually from Cutter cow carcasses, which have been nearly completely freed of fat.
Osso buco A veal hindshank or foreshank that has been sliced cross-sectionally
Out Front Sales Trades made in which the delivery date(s) exceed(s) the reporting time frame for sales normally associated with the commodity involved. (See also Prompt Market.)
Outside Skirt The diaphragm muscle of a beef carcass.
Oxtails The coccygeal vertebrae from beef carcasses. Used for stewing and for soup making.
P
Pancreas The gland, located in the duodenal loop, that secretes the glucose regulating hormone, insulin. It also secretes digestive enzymes for fat (lipase), starch (amylase), and protein (trypsin). This organ, in swine, is called the "false" sweetbreads and is used by the pharmaceutical industry for insulin production. (See also Sweetbread, False Sweetbread.)
Peeled Refers to fat and muscle separation along natural seams.
Pelt The skin and attached wool from a sheep carcass.
Pepsin Linings A portion of a hog's stomach lining that contains glands that secrete the pepsin enzyme. This enzyme is used by the pharmaceutical industry to produce a digestive aid for humans.
Pet Food Items Visceral organs and carcass parts that are denatured and then rendered into products for pet consumption. (See also Denatured.)
Pituitary Gland The small, oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain. Used in the pharmaceutical industry mainly for growth hormone.
Portion Controlled The process of preparing cuts of meat to predetermined individual weights (portions), usually a single serving.
Primals The basic major cuts of meat into which carcasses or sides are separated.
Prime Steam Lard Lard produced by subjecting selected pork fats to high temperature under steam pressure in a closed rendering vessel.
Prompt Market The relatively nearby supply and demand situation for a given commodity as opposed to the out-front market (See Also Out Front Sales.)
P.S.E Pale, soft, and exudative pork product
PSMO ("Pismo") A beef tenderloin from which practically all surface fat has been removed and the side muscle (psoas minor) has been left attached.
Purge Those meat juices and fats that seep out of meat cuts. Typically associated with vacuum packaged or canned product.
R
Refiner A company that takes edible tallow and lard and refines it into shortenings and blends of animal and vegetable oils.
Regular Tripe Tripe obtained from cow carcasses. (See also Tripe, Honeycomb Tripe.)
Regular Liver Livers from older beef animals, usually cows. (See also Select Livers.)
Render  To extract fat from animal tissue by heating.
Renderer A company that processes "waste" animal material collected from butcher shops, food and meat markets, hotels and restaurants, and fallen animals from farms, ranches, and feedlots, into inedible tallow and tankage.
Rib Fingers The intercostal muscles.
River Hides Hides from cattle produced mainly in the major cattle producing states along the upper Missouri River 
Rough Cuts The less desirable primal cuts of a carcass, including the flank, navel, brisket, and shank.
S
Salmonella A non-sporulating bacterium that causes a number of enteric (intestinal) diseases. Commonly present on the skin of certain animals, especially poultry. 
Scalded Cleaned in boiling or very hot water (i.e., scalded tripe, etc).
Scapula The shoulder or blade bone.
Schedule CL (See Certified Fresh American Lamb.)
Seam Fat Fat deposited between muscle bundles (in the "seams" between the bundles).
Seedless Bellies Pork bellies free of soft, porous mammary gland tissue.
Select Livers Refers to livers from young beef animals as opposed to regular livers that come from older animals (cows). (See also Regular Livers.)
Shank The distal end of the fore and hind legs of a dressed carcass.
Shearling The skinned pelt of a sheep that has been recently shorn with wool no longer than 2 inches.
Shell Loin The bone-in strip loin in beef.
Shelf Life Refers to the amount of time that a meat product can be expected to remain fresh from the point of production.
Ship Date Refers to the time at which product is shipped for delivery regardless of the product's cut date. Also referred to as shipping date. (See also Delivery Date.)
Shorn Pelts Pelts from lambs that have been clipped at some point before slaughter. Also known as shearlings. Categories as follows: Fall Clips 1-2" wool length; No. 1's 5/8-1" length; No. 2's 3/8-5/8"; No. 3's 1/8-3/8" (1/4" minimum also used); No. 4's 1/8" or less. Length is measured where wool is the shortest - usually along the side or belly. Grading is based on shortest length, not average length. Shorn pelts of 2-3" are usually sold as wools or unshorns. (See also Unshorn Pelts.) 
Shrinkage The weight lost (usually moisture) by a product either during storage or through shipping and handling.
Side One half of a split carcass
Silver Skin A heavy membrane separating muscle groups
Simple Average Mathematical expression obtained by calculating the mean of several numbers. (See also Weighted Average.)
Skirt The large, thin sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic (chest) and abdominal (belly) cavities (also called Diaphragm). (See also Inside Skirt and Outside Skirt.)
Slunk An unborn calf.
Soaper A trade term for a soap company. They buy packer bleachable tallow to use in the soap manufacturing process.
Special Fed Refers to veal calves that are fed a special milk formula to prohibit the development of the red color normally associated with the meat of older beef animals. They are kept on this formula for 16-24 weeks, usually 18 weeks. Slaughter weights range between 300-500 pounds. Also known as Formula Fed, Milk Fed, and Natures. 
Special Fed Future Contracts Future contracts for Special Fed veal calves originated with the banker wanting some kind of guarantee from the producer as to what the value of the baby calf would be at the time of slaughter. Below are definitions of the most common future contracts offered.
Spleen The large organ in the upper left abdomen lying near or across the surface of the stomach. Modifies and regulates the cellular components of blood. (See also Melts.)
Square Cut Refers normally to the manner of cutting a beef or veal primal chuck. The brisket or breast and the foreshank are removed by a cut perpendicular to the rib-chuck separation and passing through the cartilaginous juncture of the first rib and sternum. The resultant item is in the approximate shape of a square. 
Strap (Ligamentum Nuchae) The thick, elastic band of ligament imbedded between the muscle bundles of the dorsal surface of the neck (also called "back strap").
Strap Muscle Refers to the iliocostalis muscle in pork. Often removed from boneless pork loins.
Sweetbread In beef, this is the thymus gland and is used as a food product. In pork, this is the pancreas gland and is used for pharmaceutical production. (See also Pancreas Gland, False Sweetbread.)
Swiss Cut Refers to the close trimming of beef tongues. All bones, glands, and base muscles are removed.
T
Tankage Cooked animal material (except for paunch contents), either before or after pressing or extracting. (See also Dry Rendered Tankage.)
Tallow The rendered fat from carcasses of ruminant animals.
Tender An offer of a bid for a contract. A way in which a buyer announces their desire to buy a commodity.
Texas Steer or Heifer In hides, once used to refer to side branded hides of a narrow close compact pattern, and plump thickness although not necessarily from Texas. In contemporary usage, the brand is not limited to just the side.
Titre Temperature in degrees Centigrade at which free fatty acids freeze. An analytical measurement indicating the hardness or softness of fat.
Trepas The small intestine in beef.
Trigger Level A quantitative level that is 110 percent of the adjusted base quota level. If imports are expected to equal or exceed the trigger level, then import controls are imposed and access into the United States is reduced by 10 percent to 100 percent of the import quota (See also Import Quota.)
Trimmings Refers to small pieces of meat usually produced as a by-product of a cut fabrication line. (See also Boneless.) 
Tripe The cleaned and denuded beef rumen and reticulum. Tripe from the rumen is considered regular tripe. Tripe from the reticulum is called honeycomb tripe. (See also Honeycomb Tripe.)
Trotter The lower hind shank in lamb. That portion normally removed at the break joint.
U
Unbranded 1) Used in reference to beef that has not been officially graded by the USDA's Meat Grading Service. Also known as Unrolled or No-Rolls. Usually associated with quality similar to the Select grade. 2) Refers to a hide that has not been branded. (See also Native.) 
Unquote (UNQ) Used to indicate when a current price is not available for a reported item.
Unshorn Pelts Also known as "wools". Can be anything with a wool length of over 1-1/2" but usually over 3" in length. Western slope are usually 2-1/2" but vary between 1-3/8" - 3". Genuine Spring Lamb 1-1/2" - 3". Spring Lamb varies widely depending on the area from which they come. This category is usually misused as not all reported Spring Lambs are Genuine Spring Lambs. (See also Shorn Pelts.) 
V
Vacuum Packed The process of encasing meat in plastic bags, evacuating the air, and then sealing them. This process helps to extend the product shelf life.
Value Added  Refers to product that has been further processed, usually through trimming, sizing, slicing, packaging, etc, thus increasing the value of the product to the buyer.
Variety Meats A term usually used to describe offal items such as heart, liver, tongue, brain, sweetbread, etc. (See also Offal.)
Veal Meat derived from the carcass of young bovine animals, usually under five months of age. Veal is pale in color, ranging from light to dark grayish pink. (See also Milk-Fed Veal; Nature Veal; Special Fed.) 
Voluntary Restraint Agreement (VRA) An agreement to voluntarily limit the quantity of product imported into the U.S. It is negotiated by the USDA and countries supplying imported meat products to ensure that the total imports do not exceed the trigger level. (See also Entitlement, Trigger Level.)
W
Weasand The muscular layer of the esophagus.
Weekly National Wholesale Meat Trade Report A publication composed of a weekly compilation of all meat reports released by the Livestock and Grain Market News Service, Des Moines, IA. (See also National Wholesale Meat Trade Report.)
Weighted Average A calculated average in which the relative frequency of the occurrence of an item among related items is factored into the final average. (See also Simple Average.)
Wet Blueing The process by which a hide is converted into a wet, unsplit, blue
Y
Yellow Grease Restaurant greases (fats and oils from cooking) or lower quality tallows from rendering plants. Used for pet food and animal feeds.

 


 
  Last Modified Date: 04/07/2011